Water Resources


Recently I’ve enjoyed time with colleagues who have made my transition from CDM Smith to independent consultant a period of recollection and reflection on great and challenging experiences together. I realized that I once promised to pass along a copy of remarks I made to a large group of CDM Smith staff at Disneyland in 2006. I have excerpted portions of it below and provide a link to the entire address. In retrospect, it stands out as one the clearest statements I have made regarding my values and principles. And while it focuses on our organization at that time, its message has broader applicability. Please share your thoughts.

“I want to welcome you to Anaheim. This is the first time that I have come to Disneyland for a business meeting, and I confess that fact was the departure point for my remarks this evening. I have always loved this place and what it taught me about imagination.

So tonight, I want to talk about the importance of imagination and creativity in every aspect of our service to clients. I will argue that imagination is an essential ingredient in achieving our vision of “improving the environment and infrastructure.” I further want to argue that as rising leaders in this firm, you must provide the spark that ignites the creativity of great, diverse teams. You must take responsibility for fostering a workplace setting that engages diverse groups of people to create a better world and a better environment. That workplace is where “total right solutions” and “exceptional client service” come from. And you are the people who must make it happen.

I want to make a strong case that imaginative thinking is a fundamental differentiator between CDM and many of our competitors. That competitive strength results from imagining something new — from the belief that our understanding can be improved, that our intentional and inadvertent acts of destructiveness and waste can be reduced, and that we can successfully improve our environment and infrastructure – more effectively integrating our natural and our built worlds.

But I will come back to that. First, I want to talk about my own introduction to the “speculative imagination,” as a third grader, living for a summer in Santa Monica. Let’s make the wild segue from Albert Einstein to Walt Disney, from theoretical physics to “Imagineering.” I want to see if I can effectively illustrate what I mean by the concept of imagination and progress in our industry at this time. Again, not Fantasyland, but Tomorrowland. And just to make it more complicated, not the Tomorrowland of today, but the Tomorrowland of 1958 – because it was different then. I believe that many of my most basic ideas about progress were sparked by the Imagineering of that now lost Tomorrowland.

In Bob Thomas’ biography of Walt Disney, he quotes from the original description of the park developed during its initial planning:

The idea of Disneyland is a simple one. It will be a place for people to find happiness and knowledge. It will be a place for parents and children to share pleasant times in one another’s company: a place for teachers and pupils to discover greater ways of understanding and education. Here the older generation can recapture the nostalgia of days gone by, and the younger generation can savor the challenge of the future. Here will be the wonders of Nature and Man for all to see and understand.

I was the younger generation they were talking about. I was fascinated by the TWA Moonliner that towered over Tomorrowland and provided the gateway to the “Rocket to the Moon” ride. Disney’s Man in Space exhibit was developed with the help of real science pioneers like Willy Ley, Heinz Haber, and Wernher von Braun. The monorail system, that unfortunately for me didn’t open until 1959, wasn’t just a ride, it was a real attempt to apply cutting-edge transportation technology and make the “future” real in the present.

And then there was the Monsanto House of the Future. Open from 1957 to 1967, this house looked like a sort of square plastic mushroom, comprised of four white fiberglass wings resting on top of a wide central column. It was designed in collaboration with M.I.T. and celebrated the miracles of plastics. Inside, it displayed such futuristic innovations as electric toothbrushes, a wide-screen color television, bathroom sinks that adjusted themselves to your height, an ultrasonic dishwasher, and a microwave oven. That house and its architecture fascinated me. It was the first time in my life that I saw creations of the imagination made part of real life. That’s when I learned the most important lesson I needed to know in order to contribute to the Tolt Water Treatment Plant DBO team.

By the early nineteen sixties, Walt Disney’s visions of the past and future took over four show pavilions at the New York World’s Fair of 1964-1965. The President of the New York World’s Fair, Robert Moses, a remarkable public servant who held at one time or another almost every public works position in New York City, described his vision of the World’s Fair as “an Olympics of Progress.”7 What a wonderful concept. Later in the sixties, attractions from those pavilions, which included General Electric’s “Progressland” and Ford Motor Company’s “Magic Skyway,” would be relocated to Disneyland.

What a great time I had at this place. And I wasn’t alone. By 1963, James Rouse, speaking at a Harvard School of Design Commencement:

I hold a view that may be somewhat shocking to an audience as sophisticated as this, and that is, that the greatest piece of design in the United States today is Disneyland. If you think about Disneyland and think of its performance in relationship to its purpose – its meaning to people more than its meaning to the process of development – you will find it the outstanding piece of urban design in the United States. It took an area of activity – the amusement park – and lifted it to a standard so high in its performance, in its respect for people, in its functioning for people, that it really became a brand-new thing.

The possibility and the reality of the “brand-new thing.” In 1958, Walt Disney made me a nine-year-old believer that we could put a man on the moon if we put our minds to it. I am very grateful for that naïve optimism. I grew up in an era that fostered confidence in the concept of “progress” and the power of “imagination.” Much has changed.

Tomorrowland today is largely a tribute to nostalgia and fantasy, where nineteenth century futurists like Jules Verne are honored in rides designed to look like antique scientific instruments with old-fashioned brass fittings and useless mechanical clockwork. Only the world of computers and information technology (and possibly pharmaceuticals) survive as a potential source of hope for the future. Today, the Fox Network airs documentaries “proving” that NASA’s moon landings were a conspiratorial, government hoax. The late nineteen fifties and early nineteen sixties are themselves a subject of nostalgia.

Our firm is founded on principles of service and progress – on the belief that there is something that can be done. Frankly, if you do not imagine that you can make a difference, there is little reason to do anything at all. I imagine that we can, will, and are making a difference.

But for today’s third graders, the exhibits that prove progress are no longer in Disneyland. They are at less exciting places like the West Basin Water Recycling Plant or the TreePeople’s demonstration project in the Crenshaw District of Los Angeles. These are examples of innovation and progress that should be as compelling as the House of the Future was in 1958. And while they do not enjoy the corporate sponsorship of General Electric or Ford Motor Company, they offer tangible evidence of our ability to imagineer new solutions, to improve on the past, to realize our dreams. We need to promote and celebrate them because we lack the broad cultural messages of hope in the future once delivered by Walt Disney, and Robert Moses, and John F. Kennedy, and Martin Luther King.

In my view, we must have blind faith in our ability to discover a brand new thing, to find a way towards a sustainable future that provides for both human needs and the environment. We must believe in and tell that story wherever we can. Perhaps it’s not realistic, but it is the foundation of our firm’s vision of itself and its role in the world. That unrealistic optimism, that old-fashioned Tomorrowland view of progress, is what sets us apart from the vast majority of people who surrender to the realities of the present and assume that the future will be the same as the past — or worse. We can see a future of improvements to the environment and infrastructure in LA. Others see the desperate, degraded Los Angeles of 2019, as depicted in Ridley Scott’s 1982 sci-fi film “Blade Runner.”

In 1793, William Blake, the British poet and visionary wrote, “What is now proved was once, only imagin’d.” Everything we see around us, our exceptional quality of life and personal freedom, is the product of the imaginations of millions of creative people who have preceded us. We need to be the source of future proof that it can still be done. That starts with optimism and imagination. Bennis says, “Great Groups don’t lose hope in the face of complexity. The difficulty of the task adds to their joy.”

Big Data and the Water Industry

IWA Congress Dublin 2012Last May, at the inaugural IWA World Congress on Water, Climate and Energy held at the impressive new Convention Centre in Dublin, I presented a keynote address on big data analytics and its impact on the water industry. Since then, I have received a number of requests for a transcript of the presentation:

Over the last several years, I have been introduced to a realm of science and technology that many of us in the water industry don’t know much about – and really should pay closer attention to. In fact, it is a field of new science that barely has a name. Let’s just call it “big data analytics;” and let’s focus on how it can make our cities “smarter.”

New Science without a Name

It’s interesting that when The Data Warehousing Institute (TDWI) surveyed data management professionals on this topic in May 2011, 7% of respondents hadn’t “seen or heard of anything resembling big data analytics” – they knew nothing about it. Most respondents (65%) didn’t have a name for it but generally understood its meaning. The remaining 28% (roughly a quarter) both understood the concept and had named it – most calling it “big data analytics” but including names as well, like “advanced” analytics, “discovery” analytics, or “exploratory” analytics.


And while twenty years ago, I/T professionals used to struggle with the cost of data storage and management, today the storage of massive amounts of data is virtually free, providing for increasingly sophisticated approaches to mining it, analyzing it, discovering relationships within it, and ultimately utilizing it to predict the behavior of the complex systems (and systems of systems) it represents. This is an emerging technology which will no doubt touch every aspect of our lives (and already has if you shop with a credit card or over the internet). But for our purposes it’s the management of . . . [Click to view the full PDF]

Coastline Thoughts: Del Mar

Coastlines are where the give-and-take of land and water is a real-time display of fluid borders and ambiguous boundaries. On the Pacific coast at Del Mar, California the land and water accommodate surfers, bathers, boogie boarders, strollers, joggers, bicyclists, Amtrak trains, million-dollar homes, life-guard jeeps, stormwater runoff, crumbling bluffs, and disappearing sand. The beach is a place where the concept of property ownership is regularly challenged by the fluidity of water and land enjoined.

Amtrak Train at Del Mar Bridge

Amtrak Train at Del Mar Bridge

The coastline at Del Mar is an overlay of engineered landscape and natural dynamics. There are three planes of activity, each happening at elevations separated by from 10 to 100 feet. At sea level there is the beach, where the tide advances and recedes, periodically enlarged by Pacific storms, and very effective in stripping clean the sand dune surfaces that visitors expect to recline in. At the highest plane, atop the bluff, are single family homes and apartments, built within a lattice of transportation, sewer, water, power, gas, and drainage infrastructure. In-between, the railroad right-of-way winds among the bluffs from north to south, intersecting occasional culverts built to intercept stormwater and direct it under the tracks and onto the beach and bridges conveying people and goods overhead.

Protecting the terraced railroad right-of-way from erosion above and the crashing waves undermining the bluffs from below is a constant challenge — managing the engineered and the natural systems for as long as we’re here. Every now and then, a portion of the bluff between the railroad and the beach sloughs off and collapses onto the shore below, awakening public concerns about hikers on the cliffs and unsuspecting beach-goers below.

Abandoned rail on the beach exposed by winter tides

Abandoned rail on the beach exposed by winter tides

Few places offer such a beautiful spot to see the tension between human aspirations and the reality of nature’s most powerful forces. For a spectacular series of aerial photographs covering the entire California coastline over multiple years, checkout californiacoastline.org. And to see a slice of the coast at Del Mar, here’s a photo near 8th Street.

Evolution of Urban Water Management

My colleague Vladimir Novotny has done a good job condensing the several thousand years of water infrastructure history into four distinct stages – or paradigms as he calls them.

Opportunistic Utilization of Readily Available Water

They proceed from the initial use of easily accessed surface water and shallow groundwater, and the use of streets as the primary means for directing stormwater flows and disposing of every kind of human and animal waste imaginable. It’s a situation that conjures up Jonathan Swift’s poem “A Description of a City Shower”:

Now from all parts the swelling kennels flow,
And bear their trophies with them as they go:
Filth of all hues and odors seem to tell
What street they sailed from, by their sight and smell…
Drowned puppies, stinking sprats, all drenched in mud,
Dead cats, and turnip tops, come tumbling down the flood.

This first paradigm persisted in many cities well into the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, and can still be found as the norm in squatter settlements surrounding the world’s burgeoning megacities – life-threatening quality water, haphazard drainage, regular flooding, and no sanitation.

Engineered Storage and Conveyance

What emerged as the second paradigm was the engineered construction of water storage facilities, aqueducts, and drainage facilities – all of which were well-developed technologies in Roman times and earlier.  The word “drainage” in this case means the stormwater runoff and stream flows resulting from rainwater and snowmelt – although the contamination of drainage systems with the addition of human wastes is an important accidental “innovation” that developed in Roman times as well.

Addition of Water Treatment Technologies

The degradation of water quality resulting from the growth of industrial cities in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries drove the development of the third model, which added water treatment both at the source of potable supplies and at the point of disposal to receiving waters, dramatically improving health and water quality.

Non-Point Source Pollution Control

And finally, in the fourth paradigm, which is in progress, efforts to reduce and control the pollutants that result from stormwater runoff, which can affect water bodies from sources that arrive either through pipes or flow directly into rivers and streams –– have been added to the end-of-pipe, command and control, fast-conveyance systems approach that has evolved over four thousand years.

So, over time, we have successfully designed urban water systems that keep land relatively dry (i.e., properly drained) and provide a reliable supply of potable water for human and commercial needs. And then, as a matter of convenience, we use potable water as a means of carrying away human and industrial wastes for subsequent treatment and disposal.  These systems have always been integrated into the built environment of buildings and streets – relying on properly designed streets as one of the means of providing adequate drainage.

The Fifth Paradigm

In our book Cities of the Future, we explored the connections between urban water quality, hydrology, and broader aspects of urban land use planning. We concluded, as others have, that there would need to be fundamental changes in order to get to what Vladimir has characterized as the “fifth paradigm” of urban water management.  As suggested, the previous four have a few things in common. They look at water as either a resource to be utilized for potable, commercial, and waste disposal purposes, or a nuisance and threat to be protected against.  Centuries of engineered systems have been designed to move water rapidly from where it is to where it’s needed, and from where it’s not wanted to someplace else.

We address the need for fundamental change in our Preface to Cities of the Future:

Cities of the Future“the fifth paradigm of urban water management . . . adopts a holistic, systems approach to the urban watershed, rather than a functionally discrete focus on individual components (drinking water, sewage, stormwater) characteristic of earlier models.


“[In] This fifth paradigm . . . all the components of water supply, stormwater, and wastewater will be managed in a closed loop.


“One of the goals of the fifth paradigm is to develop an urban landscape that mimics but not necessarily reproduces the processes and structures present in a predevelopment natural system… (H)ydrological mimicry . . . relying on reduction of imperviousness, increased infiltration, surface storage and use of plants that retain water . . . interconnected green [spaces] . . . around urban water resources . . . (and) storage-oriented drainage with less reliance on underground conduits and more surface storage, infiltration and flow retardation.”

Progress in the direction of Vladimir’s fifth paradigm will require fully coordinated management of water and land in a manner that has few precedents.  Instead of a system that provides water, sewer, and drainage to individual parcels of land, we will be designing an urban landscape that utilizes integrated systems of plumbing and land use to reduce the need for more pipes, pumps, and treatment plants, as well as the imported water to fill them. More importantly, design objectives will be different as well – transitioning from the utilization of natural resources to fuel urban development towards managing urban development to preserve natural systems for growth and renewal.  When we examine the process of land-use planning and development, the prospects for this kind of radical redesign of the urban landscape present some challenges.